تأثیر بازی‌درمانی مبتنی بر نظام خانواده روی جو خانواده و مشکلات رفتاری کودکان دچار اختلال فزون کنشی/کاستی‌ توجه

نوع مقاله : پژوهش کاربردی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشدمشاوره خانواده،گروه روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه خاتم، تهران ایران.

2 استادیار گروه روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه خاتم، تهران ایران.

چکیده

پژوهش‌های فراوانی به‌صورت مجزا راجع به اثربخشی رویکرد خانواده­درمانی نظام‌دار در حل مشکلات خانواده و استفاده از بازی‌درمانی یا درمان­های خانواده‌مدار جهت کاهش مشکلات رفتاری کودکان مخصوصاً کودکان دچار اختلال فزون کنشی/کاستی‌ توجه بهره‌ فراوانی برده شده است در این پژوهش به تلفیق رویکرد نظام‌دار خانواده و بازی­درمانی برای کار با این کودکان و خانواده­هایشان پرداخته شد. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی اثربخشی بازی‌درمانی مبتنی بر نظام خانواده بر جو خانواده و مشکلات رفتاری کودکان دچار اختلال فزون کنشی/کاستی‌ توجه بود. در این پژوهش از طرح آزمایشی تک موردی از نوع خط پایه چندگانه استفاده شد. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه کودکان 6 تا 8 سال دچار اختلال فزون کنشی/کاستی‌ توجه و خانواده‌های آن‌ها در شهر تهران بودند که در سال 1399-1398 به مراکز مشاوره تصمیم، باران دانش و آفتاب زندگی مراجعه کرده بودند و 3 کودک به‌صورت در دسترس بر اساس ملاک‌های ورود انتخاب شدند. آزمودنی‌ها به‌صورت پلکانی زمانی وارد طرح پژوهشی شدند و 10 جلسه مداخله انجام شد. ابزارهای سنجش پژوهش حاضر پرسشنامه‌های مشکلات رفتاری کودکان (Rutter, 1967) و جو خانواده ( Moos & Moos,1994) بود. یافته‌های پژوهش بر اساس تحلیل دیداری و شاخص‌های آمار توصیفی، طراز، روند و تغییرپذیری مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته‌ها نشان داد که بازی‌درمانی مبتنی بر نظام ‌خانواده بر بهبود جو خانواده (برای هر سه آزمودنی) و کاهش مشکلات رفتاری کودکان دچار اختلال فزون کنشی/کاستی‌ توجه (برای هر سه آزمودنی) مؤثر بود. یافته­ها کارایی بازی‌درمانی مبتنی بر نظام خانواده را بر مشکلات رفتاری و جو خانواده نشان می‌دهد؛ بنابراین پیشنهاد می­شود روانشناسان و درمانگران خانواده و کودک از این روش جهت بهبود مشکلات رفتاری و جو خانواده استفاده نمایند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Family System Play Therapy on Family Environment and Behavioral Problems in Children with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hourieh MasoumiRad 1
  • Mandana Niknam 2
1 M.Sc. Family counseling, Department of psychology and Humanities, faculty of human science, Khatam University, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of psychology and Humanities, Faculty of humanities, Khatam University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Numerous studies have focused separately on the effectiveness of the systemic family therapy approach in solving family problems or using play therapy or family-centered therapies to reduce behavioral problems in children with ADHD. In this study, Family System therapy and play therapy were combined to work with these children and their families. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of family system play therapy on the family environment and behavioral problems of children with ADHD. In this study, a single case experimental design of multiple baselines was used. The statistical population included all children aged 6 to 8 years with ADHD and their families in Tehran who referred to "Tasmim", "AftabeZendegi", "baraneDanesh" counseling centers in 2020-2021, and 3 children were selected based on inclusion criteria. Subjects were randomly selected for the research project and 10 sessions of intervention were performed. The measuring instruments of the present study were the Rutter Children) Rutter, 1967( and the Moos Family Environment Scale )Moos & Moos, 1994). Findings were analyzed based on visual analysis and descriptive statistics, level, trend, and variability. Findings showed that Family System Play Therapy ‌was effective in improving the family environment (for all three subjects) and reducing the behavioral problems of children with ADHD (for all three subjects). Findings show the effectiveness of family system play therapy on the behavioral problem and family environment. Therefore, it is recommended that family and child psychologists and therapists use this method to improve behavioral problems and the family environment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : play therapy
  • attention-deficit/ hyperactivity
  • family system
  • Environment
  • behavioral problems
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