خستگی پدرومادر از مسئولیت‌های فرزندپروری در خانواده‌های شهر تهران: نقش همکاری پدران و مادران در انجام کارکردهای پدرومادری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار گروه روان‌شناسی، پژوهشکدۀ زنان، دانشگاه الزهرا(س)، تهران، ایران

چکیده

همکاری پدرومادر در پذیرش و انجام مسئولیت‌های فرزندپروری دربرگیرنده پیامدهای مثبتی برای پدرومادر و فرزندان است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی نقش همکاری پدران و مادران در انجام وظایف پدرومادری با هدف پیش‌بینی تجربۀ خستگی پدرومادر از وظایف فرزندپروری در خانواده‌های ساکن شهر تهران انجام شد. روش پژوهش توصیفی و از نوع همبستگی بود. نمونۀ پژوهش 391 پدر و مادر (195 مادر و 196 پدر) بودند که به شیوۀ در دسترس و خواستار برای همکاری در پژوهش از نقاط گوناگون شهر تهران در پاییز سال 1397 انتخاب شدند. ابزارهای سنجش دربرگیرنده سنجه درگیری پدرومادر در وظایف و کارکردهای پدرومادری Roskam, Brianda, & Mikolajczak (2018)   و ‏سنجه سنجش بی‌رمقی1پدرومادری Roskam & Mikolajczak  (2018) بود. برآیندهای حاصل از آزمون همبستگی و تحلیل رگرسیون هم‌زمان نشان داد همکاری پدران در برآورده ساختن نیازهای مالی با نمرات احساس بیزاری از نقش پدرومادری همبستگی منفی و ارضای نیازهای بنیادی با فاصلۀ عاطفی گرفتن از فرزندان همبستگی منفی دارد ( 05/0p <). افزایش همکاری پدران در تأمین نیازهای مالی، نیازهای اخلاقی، نیاز به برانگیختگی و نیازهای عاطفی فرزندان در کمک به انجام کارکرد پدرومادری در مادران با کاهش بی‌رمقی و خستگی برآمده از وظایف فرزندپروریِ مادران همبسته است. برآیندها همچنین نشان داد که برآورده ساختن نیازهای بنیادی به‌تنهایی توسط پدران، افزایش بی‌رمقی پدرومادری را در آنها پیش‌بینی می‌کند، همچنین احساس همکاری پدران در اجرای کارکرد نیازهای مالی فرزندان از سوی مادران، قادر است کاهش بی‌رمقی پدرومادری را در مادران پیش‌بینی کند (02/0=p ). با توجه به دگرگونی‌های اخیر فرهنگی و اجتماعی، به نظر می­رسد همکاری پدران در انجام کارکردهای پدرومادری می­تواند منجر به پیامدهای روانی مثبتی برای مادران و کودکان شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

dor 20.1001.1.22516654.1399.10.1.11.2

عنوان مقاله [English]

Exhaustion from Parenting Responsibilities in the Families living in Tehran: The Role of Fathers and Mothers' Involvement in Parental Functions

نویسنده [English]

  • Seyyedeh Fatemeh Mousavi
Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Women Research Center, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Parental involvement in fulfilling parenting responsibilities has positive outcomes for parents and children. The study aimed to investigate the role of fathers and mothers' cooperation for doing parental tasks in predicting the parental burnout experience of families living in Tehran. The research method was descriptive and correlated. The research sample consisted of 391 parents (195 mothers and 196 fathers) who participated by volunteers in the study from different regions of Tehran in the fall of 2018. Measurements include the Parental Involvement in Parental Functions and duties Scale adopted by Roskam, Brianda, & Mikolajczak (2018) and Parental Burnout Assessment by Roskam & Mikolajczak (2018). The results of the correlation test and regression analysis showed that fathers' functions in satisfying the financial needs of children were negatively correlated with parental feeling fed up and satisfying basic needs associated negatively with emotional distance from children (p < .05). Increasing parental involvement, especially in fathers, for providing financially, moral, stimulation and emotional needs of children to help maternal functioning correlated with the reduction of exhaustion and burnout caused by parental tasks. The results also showed that fulfilling the basic needs of children alone by fathers predicts increased parental burnout in fathers. In addition, the feeling of involvement of fathers in fulfilling their children's financial needs by mothers was able to predict the reduction of parental burnout in mothers (P=.02). Given the recent cultural and social changes, it seems that fathers' involvement in parental functions can lead to positive psychological consequences for both parents and children.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • parental burnout
  • parental functions
  • parenting responsibilities
  • parental involvement

Exhaustion from Parenting Responsibilities in the Families living in Tehran: The Role of Fathers and Mothers' Involvement in Parental Functions

 

Abstract

Parental involvement in fulfilling parenting responsibilities has positive outcomes for parents and children. The study aimed to investigate the role of fathers and mothers' cooperation for doing parental tasks in predicting the parental burnout experience of families living in Tehran. The research method was descriptive and correlated. The research sample consisted of 391 parents (195 mothers and 196 fathers) who participated by volunteers in the study from different regions of Tehran in the fall of 2018. Measurements include the Parental Involvement in Parental Functions and duties Scale adopted by Roskam, Brianda, & Mikolajczak (2018) and Parental Burnout Assessment by Roskam & Mikolajczak (2018). The results of the correlation test and regression analysis showed that fathers' functions in satisfying the financial needs of children were negatively correlated with parental feeling fed up and satisfying basic needs associated negatively with emotional distance from children (P<.05). Increasing parental involvement, especially in fathers, for providing financially, moral, stimulation and emotional needs of children to help maternal functioning correlated with the reduction of exhaustion and burnout caused by parental tasks. The results also showed that fulfilling the basic needs of children alone by fathers predicts increased parental burnout in fathers. In addition, the feeling of involvement of fathers in fulfilling their children's financial needs by mothers was able to predict the reduction of parental burnout in mothers (P=.02). Given the recent cultural and social changes, it seems that fathers' involvement in parental functions can lead to positive psychological consequences for both parents and children.

Keywords: parental burnout, parental functions, parenting responsibilities, parental involvement

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

Childbirth is the happiest event and is a challenging event for parents (Machalicek, Lang, & Raulston, 2015), therefore, parenting as a stressful job, makes parents exhausted. Parents are constantly confronted with parenting stress, gradually experiencing parental burnout, with negative personal, marital, and family outcomes (Mikolajczak, Brianda, Avalosse, & Roskam, 2018;  Mikolajczak, Gross, & Roskam, 2019). burned-out parents are exhausted from the daily care of children and parenting role, feel the emptiness of energy and self-blame, are less involved in active relationships with their children, and are unable to manage their children's issues effectively (Mikolajczak, Raes, Avalosse, & Roskam, 2018). Parental burnout is a condition of mental and emotional exhaustion in parents (Luecher, Dede, Giten, Fennel, & Maria, 1999), and includes four dimensions of deep exhaustion; the contrast with the present parental role; emotional distancing from children and, loss of efficiency and feelings of inefficiency (Roskam, Brianda, & Mikolajczak, 2018).

Some studies have shown that demographic factors of parents and children can predict exhaustion from parental responsibilities (Le Vigouroux & Scola, 2018).

Because parenting is a multidimensional concept that requires a deep awareness of all children's needs, including developmental (Winter, Morawska, & Sanders, 2012), basic, emotional (Chang et al., 2015) and other children's needs to achieve the ideal image of an effective citizen in children, satisfying these needs that called parental functions has important psychological outcomes for children and parents. It seems that the collaborating of both parents in satisfying the multiple needs of their children can reduce the inevitable negative outcomes of parenting and act in favor of positive parenting (Böök & Perälä-Littunen, 2015). As Lau & Power (2019) showed, parental involvement in parenting responsibilities can reduce parental stress and lead to an authoritative parenting style, especially in fathers. The study aimed to investigate the role of parents’ involvements in parenting duties to predict parental burnout of families living in Tehran to answer the following questions:

• Is there a relationship between parental involvement in meeting the needs of children and parental burnout?

• What is the role of each parent’s involvement in parenting responsibilities in predicting parental burnout?

Methodology

The research design was correlational. The participants were 196 fathers and 195 mothers who were participated voluntarily from different rejoins of Tehran by referring to the public centers of the city. The mean and SD of fathers' age was 42.9±7.34, the mean and SD of years of education were 13.47±2.88. The mean and SD of mothers' age was 38.6±8.09, the mean and SD of years spent in education was 13.34±3.01.

Research tools included Involvement in Parental Function & Duties Scale including 23 items adopted by Roskam & Mikolajczak (2018) in five subscales including basic needs, money, emotional needs, stimulation, and moral values in the 5-point Likert scale with an alpha coefficient of.88 and the Parental Burnout Assessment by  Roskam et al., (2018) including 23 items in the 7-point Likert scale and four subscales including exhaustion of parenting role, contrast with parental self in the past, feeling fed up and emotional distancing from the children with an alpha coefficient of.91.

Results and discussion

Descriptive results showed that mothers feel more exhausted from their parental role than fathers feel and feel more contrast between their current role and their parental role in the past. In general, mothers feel more exhausted from their parenting tasks.

The results in Table 1 showed that meeting financial needs alone in fathers negatively correlated with the feeling fed up and satisfying basic needs alone negatively correlated with emotional distance from children (p <.05). In addition, increasing fathers' collaboration in meeting their children's financial and moral needs, stimulation, and emotional needs in helping mothers has also been associated with reduced parental burnout.

Table1.

Regression analysis of parental functions in predicting parental burnout

p

t

F

r2

r

 

B

variables

 

.01

2.52

1.41

.04

.19

 

13.88

constant

fathers

.5

.67

.05

.27

needs for money

.02

2.22 -

.25-

.65 -

basic needs

.5

.64

.08

.42

moral values

.9

.02 -

.003

.02-

stimulation

.3

1.21

.012

.71

emotional needs

.001

5.55

2.09

.05

.23

 

31.77

constant

mothers

.02

2.21 -

.19

.73 -

needs for money

.4

.84-

.08

.36-

basic needs

.4

.87-

.1

.59-

stimulation

.3

.99

.09 -

.67-

emotional needs

Altogether, the results showed that satisfying the basic needs alone predicts parental burnout for fathers, and collaborating in meeting the financial needs of mothers can predict a decrease in parental burnout in mothers (β =.19, p <.02).

Conclusion

The results of the current study are consistent with the results of similar studies such as Böök & Perälä-Littunen (2015), and Mikolajczak et al., (2018) https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02198.xthat indicate a reduction in the exhaustion of parenting duties in parents who actively participate in parental functions.

The results of the current study are also consistent with the results of similar studies such as Mikolajczak et al., (2018) confirm that fathers' participation in child care leads to emotional and cognitive outcomes in children and, reduce burnout in parents (Cabrera, Hofferth, & Chae, 2011).

The restriction in categorizing the parents into burned and non-burned out was the limitation of this study. Strengthen the collaboration of both parents in parenting; especially fathers' participation can reduce the adverse consequences of overload parenting responsibilities.

 

Acknowledgments

All participants appreciated for participation voluntarily.

Authors’ contributions

The correspondence author is responsible for all stages of research and preparing the draft of the paper.

Funding

This paper taken from a research project approved at Alzahra University.

Availability of data and materials

Research data and tools are only available through the author.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

This study conducted in line with the Hilensky Declaration and meeting the codes of informed consent and confidentiality of parent’s information.

Consent for publication

The author expresses her consent for the publication of the paper.

 

Competing interests

The findings of this study do not conflict with personal or organizational interests.

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