Representing Lived Experience of Parents in Their Teaching Sexual Ethics to Their Children

Document Type : Original


Assistant Professor of Philosophy of Education, Kurdistan University, Sanandaj, Iran


Purpose: This study aimed at representing lived experience of parents in their teaching sex morality to their children.
Method: As a qualitative research, a hermeneutic phenomenology, as strategy and method was applied.  Participants included 20 parents of middle class families with strong educational background in Sanandaj. In order to collect data, semi-structured and Multistep interviews were used; and then analyzed via Ajjawi and Higgs method.
Findings: The findings show that the experience of parents can be reconstructed in three dimensions: cognitive, emotional, and practical; with tree inherent factors: ignorance, fear, and contingency. In other words, they had no knowledge of sex education and how to teach sexual ethics. They do not pay attention to sex education unless their children face some sexual problems; and yet, a widespread fear of their children’s sexual behaviors can be seen among them. The proposed solution for parents is to take advantage of the soft conjunctive- disjunctive approach in sex education.

Allen, L. (2011).Young People and Sexuality Education: Rethinking Key Debates; New York: Palgrave Macmillan Ajjawi, R, & J. Higgs (2007). Using hermeneutic phenomenology to investigate how experienced practitioners learn to communicate clinical reasoning. The Qualitative Report, 12, 4: 612-638
 Archard, D. (1998). How should we teach sex? Journal of Philosophy of Education; 32, 3: 437- 449
Archard, D. (2003).sex education; in: A companion to the philosophy of education; edited by: Randall Curren; Blackwell publishing [540-544]
 Bowden, J.and E. Walsh (ed. 2000).Phenomenography; Melbourne: RMIT University Press Bowden, J. and P. Green (ed. 2005).Doing Developmental Phenomenography; Melbourne: RMIT University Press
 Beharry, P. and S. Crozier (2008).Using Phenomenology to Understand Experiences of Racism for Second-Generation South Asian Women; Canadian Journal of Counseling / Revue canadienne de counseling , 42,4: 262-277
 Denny G. and M. Young (2006). An Evaluation of an Abstinence-Only Sex Education Curriculum: An 18-Month Follow-up; Journal of School Health, 76, 8: 414- 422
 Ekstrand, M.; C. Engblom; M. Larsson and T.Tyden (2011). Sex education in Swedish schools as described by young women; The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 16:210–224
Elders, J. (1999). Sex Education Should Be Taught in Schools; in: Sex Education; edited by: Tamara L. Roleff; Greenhaven Press, Inc.
San Diego, California Etzioni, Amitai (1999). Sex Education Should Emphasize Values; in: Sex Education; edited by: Tamara L. Roleff; Greenhaven Press, Inc. San Diego, California
Gevorgyan, R.; E. Schmidt; M. Wall; G. Garnett; R. Atun; S. Maksimova; L. Davidenko and A. Renton (2011). Does Russia need sex education? The views of stakeholders in three Russian regions; Sex Education, 11, 2: 213–226
Ginsberg, F. and A. L. Sinacore (2013). Counseling Jewish Women: A Phenomenological Study; Journal of Counseling & Development, 91: 131-139 Halstead M. J. (1997). Muslims and sex education; Journal of moral education, 26, 3: 317-330
Halstead M. J. &L.Katarzyna (1998). Should homosexuality be taught as an acceptable alternative lifestyle? A Muslims perspective; Cambridge Journal of Education, 28, 1: 49-64
 Halstead M. J. (1999).Teaching about homosexuality: a response to John Beck; Cambridge Journal of education, 29, 1:131-136
 Hyde, B. (2005) Beyond logic – entering the realm of mystery: hermeneutic phenomenology as a tool for reflecting on children’s spirituality; International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 10, 1: 31–44
 Kontula, O. (2010).The evolution of sex education and students’ sexual knowledge in Finland in the 2000s; Sex Education, 10, 4: 373–386
Malacad, L.B. and G. C. Hess (2010).Oral sex: Behaviors and feelings of Canadian young women and implications for sex education; The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 15:177–185
McCarthy, John F. (1999). Sex Education Should Be Taught Primarily by Parents; in: Sex Education; edited by: Tamara L. Roleff; Green haven Press, Inc. San Diego, California McKay, A. (1997). Accommodating Ideological Pluralism in Sexuality Education; Journal of Moral Education; 26, 3: 285 - 300
Mkumbo K. and R. Ingham (2010). What Tanzanian parents want (and do not want) covered in school-based sex and relationships education; Sex Education, 10(1): 67– 78
 Nelson C. and M. Martin (ed.) (2004). Sexual Pedagogies: Sex Education in Britain, Australia, and America, 1879–2000; New York: Palgrave Macmillan Rawson, H. and P.Liamputtong (2010). Culture and sex education: the acquisition of sexual knowledge for a group of Vietnamese Australian young women; Ethnicity & Health, 15,4: 343- 364
 Sauerteig, L. D.H. and R. Davidson (ed.) (2009).Shaping sexual knowledge: a cultural history of sex education in 20th century Europe. New York: Routledge Sinkinson M. (2009). ‘Sexuality isn’t just about sex’: pre-service teachers’ shifting constructs of sexuality education; Sex Education, 9, 4: 421–436
 Smith, P. B.; J. P. Realini; R. S. BuziandM. Martinez (2011). Students’ Experiences and Perceived Benefits o f a Sex Education Curriculum: A Qualitative Analysis; Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 37:270–285
 UNESCO. (2009). International guidelines on sexuality education: An evidence informed approach to effective sex, relationships and HIV/STI education. Conference Ready Version http://