Modeling of Effecting Factors in Demand – Withdraw Marital Communicational Cycle

Document Type : Original


1 Ph.D. in Family Counseling, University of Isfahan, Teacher of Tehran University.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Counseling, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Iran

3 Professor of Counseling Department, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Isfahan University. Isfahan, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Department of Counseling, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Isfahan University. Isfahan, Iran.

5 Professor of Consultation, Faculty of Education Sciences and Psychology, University of Isfahan. Isfahan, Iran.


One of the most important specifications of marital relationships is cycles and communicational patterns, which emerge among them and may be fixing by repetition. The purpose of this study is to study the “demand– withdraw pattern” which is one of the most prevalent dysfunctional marital communicational patterns and to identify the factors which effect it. The method of present investigation is qualitative study (analysis the texts and interview) the results showed that the factors which effect on the demand– withdraw cycle include internal factors, relational factors, and situational factors. With regard to the results, it revealed that the factors which effects on the demand– withdraw cycle are wide and varied and they have multiple dimensions.


Balderrama- Durbin, C. M., Allen, E. S., Rhoades, G. K. (2012). Demand and withdraw behaviors in couples with a history of infidelity. Journal of Family Psychology, Vol 26 (1), 11-17.
Baucom, D., Epstein, N., J., Laitellade. (2000). Cognitive behavioral couple therapy, In Halford, Markman, Couple therapy, 31 – 70.
Berns, S.B., Jacobson, N. S., & Gottman, J. M. (1999). Demand-withdraw interaction in couples with a violent husband. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 666-674.
Caughlin, J. P. & Vangelisti, A.L. (1999). Desire for change in one's partner as a predictor of the demand/withdraw pattern of marital communication. Communication Monographs 66, 66-89.
Caughlin, J. P., & Vangelisti, A.L. (2000). An Individual Difference Explanation of Why Married Couples Engage in the Demand/Withdraw Pattern of Conflict. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. vol. 17 no. 4-5, 523-551.
Christensen, A. & Sullaway, M. (1984). Communication patterns questionnaire. Unpublished questionnaire, University of California, Los Angeles.
Christensen, A., Eldridge, K., Catta-Preta, A. B., Lim, V. R., & Santagata, R. (2006). Crosscultural consistency of the demand/withdraw interaction pattern in couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 1029-1044.
Christensen. A. & Heavey, CL. (1993). Gender differences in marital conflict: the demand/withdraw interaction pattern. In S. Oskamp and M. Costanzo (Eds). Gender Issues in Contemporary Society (pp. 113-141). Newbury Park; Sage.
Courtnage, E.S., Uebelacker, L.A., & Whisman, M.A. (2003). Correlates of depression and marital dissatisfaction: Perceptions of marital communication style. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 20 (6). Retrieved October 10, 2006, from EBSCOhost database.
Eldridge, K.A., & Christensen, A. (2002). Demand-withdraw communication during couple conflict: a review and analysis. In P. Noller & J.A. Feeney (Eds.), Understanding Marriage (pp. 289- 322). London: Cambridge UP.
Feeney, J. A. (2003). The systemic nature of couple relationships: An attachment perspective. In P. Erdman & T. Caffery (Eds.) Attachment and family systems: Conceptual, empirical, and therapatic relatedness (pp. 139-163). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Folger. J.P. Poole, M.S.. & Stutman. R.K. (2001). Working Through Conflict: Strategies for Relationships, Groups, and Organizations. New York: Longman.
Foumier, B., Brassard, A., & and Shaver, P. R. (2011). Adult Attachment and Male Aggression in Couple Relationships: The Demand-Withdraw Communication Pattern and Relationship Satisfaction as Mediators. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Vol. 26, Iss. 10; pg. 1982
Heavey, C, Layne, C & Christensen, A. (1993). Gender and conflict structure in marital interaction: a replication and extension. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(1), 16-27.
Holley, S. R., Sturm, V. E., & Levenson, R. W. (2010). Exploring the Basis for Gender Differences in the Demand-Withdraw Pattern. Journal of Homosexuality, 57(5). 666.
Holloway, I.and Freshwater, D. (2007).Qualitative research for nursing. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Karney, B. R & Bardbury, T. N. (1997). Neuroticism, marital interaction and the trajectory of marital satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 1075-1092.
Kobak, R. R., Ruckdeschel, K., & Hazan, C. (1994). From symptom to signal. In S. Johnson & L. Greenberg (Eds). The heart of the matter: Perspective on emotion in marital therapy(pp. 46-71). New York: Brunner / Mazel.
Marie,M. E. (2011). Implications of Relationship Power Processes for Future Psychopathology and Partner Violence, Doctorall Thesis, University of Virginia.
Maxwell, J. A. (1996). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Minuchin, P. (1985). Families and individual development: Provocation from the field of family therapy. Child development, 56, 289-302.
Noller, P. & Feeney, J. A. (1998). Communication in early marriage: responses to conflict, nonverbal accuracy, and conversational patterns, 11-43, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Papp, L. M., Kouros, C. D., Cummings, E. M. (2009). Demand- withdraw patterns in marital conflict in the home. Journal of Personal Relationships, 16 (2). 285– 300.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2006). Essentials of Nursing Research. Philadelphia: lippincott Co.
Verhofstadt, L.L, Buysse, A., Clercq, A., & Goodwin, E. (2005). Emotional arousal and negative affect in marital conflict: The influence of gender, conflict structure, and demand/ withdrawal. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35. Retrieved October 10, 2006, from EBSCO host database.
Vogel, D.L. & Karney, B.R. (2002). Demands and withdrawal in newlyweds: Elaborating on the social structure hypothesis. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships19(5), 685–701.
Wood, G. L., & Haber, J. (2002). Nursing research. St. Louis: Mosby Co.